Moorish Medicine Education
Moorish Medicine Education was Extensive and Famed
Europeans sought Moorish Spain
's Health Care, in a manner comparable to how today's world considers The Mayo Clinic "unrivalled" in Health Care.
"Know Thyself" was a maxim of the Qur'an and certainly applicable in Moorish Medicine Education.
There were no medical schools in the al-Andalus until later.
After 636 AD, Baghdad developed Islamic medical schools by copying Jundi-Shapur's (Persia) University and hospital systems. Apprentice-ship was a standard form of modus operandi education.
In the al-Andalus, it was renowned Doctors or Specialists who were the pupils' lecturers. Students observed their teachers daily work. Moorish Medicine Health Care either in surgery or hospital work (once there were hospitals in the al-Andalus), was completed, lengthy discussions followed regarding that day's experiences.
Preparation for Trepanation
Treatise on Surgery by al-Zahrawi
(Museo de Ciencas, Granada)
Students were required to extensively study their teacher's work and that of famed physicians. Many medical books were purposely written in verse - aiding the pupils' learning.
There were 3 Principal Categories of al-Andalus Physicians
- Hakim: Pre-eminent physicians whose education was superior. Their services were solely for the Caliph and for the court elite. Averroes, Avenzoar and Ibn al-Jatib were considered "Hakims."
Each was an accomplished author - of one or several - outstanding medical tomes. Their written works served mankind over centuries. These erudite physicians frequently held other official status.
- Tabib: A general practitioner who had training which consisted of reading the written theories of the leading physicians. Hardly ever did a Tabib write books. His patients were private
- Yarrah: Self-taught surgeons, whose work was excellent, however, they were not respected by the medical world
Colliget Manuscript by Averrroes
Less Important Medical-Related Practitioners
- Barbers: Blood-letting, molar teeth-extraction and cupping glass treatments
- Chemists and Pharmacists: Prescriptions were prepared by them. They sold simple remedies. They had no medical credentials. Almotacéns: a municipal offical who supervised their work. The chemists and pharmacists sold and prepared according to a hisba-treatise regulation for custom and market control
- Healers: Exorcisms and religious-based magical work connected with faith and conjectured observations. Healers' work stemmed from the book: The Medicine of the Prophet. Moorish Healers frequently outnumbered the amount of doctors in the al-Andalus
Moorish Medicine Education Curriculum
Moorish Medicine Education entailed: in-depth studies of general practice, surgery, pharmacy, botany, optalmology, eye diseases, hygiene, disease therapeutics and medical ethics. Since anatomy was not part of the curriculum, many studied zoology, in order to gain some anatomical knowledge.
Moorish Medicine Exams
Exams completed a student's medical training. Usually, when the exams were passed, iyaza
: medical credentials
were given, however, not until 931 AD (when Caliph al-Muqtadir was shocked to learn that a patient died had the hands of his doctor) this was not compulsory.
Thereafter: there were oral and practical examinations. If the student passed, the Hippocratic oath was performed by the Mutasbib: the inspector general. The doctor was then issued his license.
Medical students then had to inscribe themselves as practising physicians, either with a specialist in their field or with a Diwan - (comparable to how modern doctors register with the College of Doctors).
The Role Model Influence of Islamic Medical Schools
1,000 years later, physicians are licensed by a Medical State Licensing Board in the USA.
European medical schools were adherent disciples of the Islamic Medical school system. Studying and being familiar with Ibn Sina's Cannon, was an obligatory part of the medical syllabus, in the Sorbonne, up until the early nineteenth century.
Doctors had to be fully aware of old and new medical teachings and then were required, to work as an intern doctor in a hospital.
The qualification of "alchemy"
was imperative, prior to admission in a Baghdad medical school.
Poisoning was a serious medical problem in Medieval Times. Even an eminent physician such as Avenzoar, wrote at length, about how Bezoar stones
(a goat's gall-stone) were an excellent method of antidote. The Bezoar Stone was believed to drive-out poisoning from the human body.
The Cordovan Zenith and its Major al-Andalus Philanthropists
The Islamic "Quest for Knowledge"
was benefacted by two Emirs and two Caliphs.
- Emir Abd-ar-Rahman 1, 756 to 788 AD
- Emir Abd ar-Rahman 11, 822 to 852 AD
- Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman 111, 929 to 961 AD
- Caliph Al-Hakim 11, 961 to 976 AD
The First 300 Years under Moorish Spain's Rule
. Political and financial stability had
to be established before hospitals were constructed in al-Andalusia.
Caliph Abd ar-Rahman 111 invested one third of state finace in public hospitals and other instituitions, promoting Moorish Medicine Education and Health Care. Cordova, eventually, had over fifty public hospitals treating the wealthy and the poor.
The Importance of Diet and its role in the al-Andalus...
...The origins of What is the Mediterranean Diet
Hierarchy of Venues - Where Medicine was Practised
- Palaces: Only Hakim's in favour with the Emir or Caliph worked here
- Doctors Surgeries: Tabib's received patients. Reputation-Status was graded by the number of chairs in the waiting-room
- Patient's Homes: Expensive private treatment for the ill
- The Poor: welfare was not unknown for the unfortunate in the al-Andalus. Poor patients received treatment in zawiya's: the homes of holy men. Rabitas: were local praying buildings. The poor and travellers were made welcome here and if medical treatment was necessary - it would be provided.