84% of the Iberian Peninsula territory belongs to Spain.
The Iberian Peninsula is shared with Portugal and Andorra. Spanish landmass is: 499,542km2
Navarra, Aragón, Cataluña and a small part of País Vasco have a natural land boundary: the Pyrenees, separating Spain from France
South Western Andalucian Province: Huelva, Extremadura, Castilla y Léon and Galicia have boundary-lines with Portugal
Political Map of Spain: Water Boundaries
The Mediterranean Sea acts as a natural water boundary to Eastern and Southern Spain
Tarifa, is the point, where the Atlantic Ocean converges with the Mediterranean Sea, (the Alboran Sea acting as the connecting channel: --> Physical Map of Spain)
Close to Tarifa, is Gibraltar: a colony of the United Kingdom: forming a boundary to Spain
Southwestern Andalucia (Cadiz and Huelva) are bordered by the Atlantic Ocean
Galica is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean
The Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean) is boundary to: Asturias, Cantabria and the País Vasco
Spanish Coastlines total 4,964kms with a ratio of 9,937km2
Political Map of Spain The Autonomous Communities:
Castilla y Léon - the largest autonomous community
Castilla la Mancha
Ceuta and Melilla - Spanish possessions in Morocco
Political Map of Spain: How The Autonomous Communities Divide into 50 Provinces
Sevilla is the capital of Andalucia.
Zaragoza is the capital of Aragon.
Oviedo is the capital of Asturias.
Palma de Mallorca
Palma de Mallorca is the capital of las Islas Baleares.
Vitoria is the capital of the Pais Vasco.
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Both Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas are the capitals of the Islas Canarias.
Santander is the capital of the Cantabria.
Barcelona is the capital of the Cataluña.
Castilla y Léon
Valladolid is the capital of the Castilla y Léon.
Castilla la Mancha
Toledo is the capital of the Castilla la Mancha.
Merida is the capital of the Extremadura.
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the Galicia.
Logruño is the capital of the La Rioja.
Madrid is the capital of the Madrid.
Pamplona is the capital of the Navarra.
Valencia is the capital of the Valencia.
Five Spanish Places of Sovereignty
Ceuta and Mellilia belong to Spain; they are under Spanish Administration: both are situated in Morrroco. Ceuta and Mellila have the status of plain cities and belong under the term: Places of Sovereignty
Islas Chafarinas: Isla del Congreso, Isla Isabel 11 (a Spanish military garrison), Isla del Rey
Peñon de Alhucemas - Lavender Rock a rock fortress - off the coast of Morocco
Peñon de Vélez de la Gomera: a rock fortress - off the Morrocan coast, near Mellila
Interesting Facts of this Political Map of Spain Spain has had many Different Capitals throughout its History
Geographical History of this Political Map of Spain
Early settlers of the Iberian Peninsula, occupied different areas. They arrived via different ways. Andalucia Spain was extremely popular because of the sea-route access. The high mountain ranges served as natural boundaries for the early tribes, thus the Iberian Peninsula had varied tribal communities
The Basques are believed to be the earliest settlers pre-Iberian times
The Iberians settled in Mediterranean areas: arriving to the Iberian Peninsula, 5000 to 3000 BC during Neolithic times
The Celts arrived from the north and settled in Atlantic areas after 1200 BC.
The Romans 218 BC - 400 AD, several times over, divided the Iberian Peninsula into different areas, creating the various (Roman Spain) Hispanaie provinces and administrative districts.
Spania: A province of Roman Byzantine Empire 552 to 624 AD under Emperor Justinian 1. Spania entailed most of Hispania Baetica. Malaga: Andalucia-province, Cartagena: Murcia-province were the most important cities to Byzantian Spania.
The Visigoth kingdom of Western Europe was powerful from the 5th to the 7th century. The Spanish Visigoth kingdom lasted 419 - 711 AD. Visigoths maintained the Roman Hispanie divisions, achieving some unity, through forced conversions. Spanish Jews
The Moors 711 - 1492 AD invaded all: but Asturias.
The Christians began fighting the Moors back from the Kingdom of Asturias. Old Roman areas morphed into various kingdoms within the Iberian Peninsula. Each new reconquistered area, cost very heavily, to both sides.
The Kingdom of Spain 1492 AD
The Kingdom of Spain was declared after the Reconquista was completed in 1492 AD. When the keys of the city of Granada and of the Alhambra had been personally handed over, by Boadbil, to Queen Isabella I and King Fernando 11, "the Catholic kings" (who by their respective marriage, and through inheritance: became Quen Isabella 11 of Castilla y Leon and Fernando 11 of Aragon).
The history of Spain was richly diverse and fraught with battles, conquests and counter battles. Spain has a vast number of castles and monuments as a consequence: especially Castilla y Leon.
These were Spain's capitals, you can visualize the distance of each, from this Political Map of Spain.
Tartessians The Lost city of Tartessos 11th century BC was capital of Tartessia. The ancient capital is believed to lie beneath Doñana national park at the mouth of the Guadalquivir. Ancient Iberia Map. The Tartessians were originally Iberians, they mixed with the Celtics - their kingdom was situated either-side of the Guadalquivir river (which traversed a mainly Iberian-populated area) - their successors, were the Turdetanos and Turdulos.
One clue to the Tartessian-Ibero origins, was that they believed, erroneously that the Guadalquvir originated from the Pyrenees. The Guadalquivir river, was confused, with the Ebro river. It is possible the Iberian Peninsular nomenclature originates from the Tartessian belief of the size of the Ebro river.
Tartessos was the highest developed civilization of Western Europe, virtue of its enormous success, gave preponderance to the hypothesis of whether Tartessos was "the Lost City of Atlantis"
Cartago Nova was founded as the capital of the Carthaginian territories
Cartago Nova was capital of the Hispania Citerior province founded by the Romans in 197 BC
Cordoba had Phoenician, Carthaginian and Greek origins.
The Romans made Corduba: Cordoba the capital of Hispania Baetica.
Cordoba suffered terrible war-damages. During the first 5 years of the Syrian Umayyad Caliphate, Sevilla was the capital. Once Cordova was repaired the Caliphate capital shifted to Cordoba in 716 AD. Cordoba remained capital of the al-Andalus until the fall of the Cordovan Caliphate in 1031 AD.
Romans: The Lusitanian capital, was Emerita Augusta founded in 25 BC: Merida - now capital of Extremadura
Romans The Tarraconesis province was the largest province of the Hispanie provinces. Tarraco: Tarragona was its capital. This city was the principal Hispania commerce center. Tarragona established innovative roman art and architecture precendents evolving as a role-city for the rest of the Hispania provinces
Romans: Toledo was an important city of the Tarracones Roman provence
Visigoths: Under the rule of Visigoth King Liuvugild 569 to 586 AD, Toledo became the capital of Visigoth Spain. It remained the Visigoth capital until the Moorish Spain invasion of 711 AD
Moors: Toledo "The City of Three Cultures": Islamic, Jewish and Christian faiths lived and worked in harmony under the rule of Caliphal Cordoba. Toledo became a major translation city. Toledo is famed for it Marzipan produce and Dasmascene metalwork - dating from Moorish times
Christians: Toledo was conquered by Alfonso 1V of Castilla, May 25th 1085 AD. Toledo remained a cultural centre - to this day - as the Toledan libraries were preserved intact
Byzantian Spania: Malaga and Cartagena
552 to 624 AD both and Malaga and Cartagena were Byzantian capitals. After Cartagena was razed by the Visigoths it is probable that Malaga was capital of Byzantian Spania.
Christians: Zaragoza was won back by the Christians in 1118 AD and became capital of the Aragonese kingdom.
Zaragoza, to the Moors, was known as Saraquista: Medina Albayada the white city. The city attained the height of its magnificence, during the 11th century. It was an important trading centre during the times of the Moors
Castilla y Léon: Léon
Romans Léon belonged to the Hispania Tarraconesis province.
Christians: Don Pelayo was crucial to the Christian history of Spain. Fighting the Moors in the Picos de Europa, the Moors could not vanquish the Iberian nobleman Don Pelayo and his small group of Christian rebels. The Moors, decided, they were a lost cause. What trouble could so few cause...
The whole of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by the Moors except for this tiny patch of Iberian territory: Asturias See top left of the Detailed Political Map of Spain above Don Pelayo, founded Asturias, as the Kingdom of Asturias, this was the first step in the Spanish Reconquista.
The Kingdom of Léon
Was founded in 910 AD by the Asturian princes: Garcia I (who died 914 AD) and Ordoño 11 of Léon who shifted Asturian capital from Oviedo to Léon.
Sancho 111 of Navarra absorbed Castilla in 1020 AD. Fernando 1 of Léon inherited Castilla. He ruled the joint provinces as Castilla y Léon.
The Kingdom of Castilla y Léon was vital to the continuation of Iberia's existence. Léon's importance in the geographical history of Spain, is reflected in the Spanish Monarch - as is the Region of Castilla y Léon in the above Detailed Political Map of Spain, as are the other kingdoms represented: Navarra: symbolized by the linking chains, Granada: symbolized by the pomegranate seed, the three fleur-de-lys: Bourbon-Anjou. Above a cross, resting on a globe, a crown symbolizes: the Spanish royal crown.
Castilla-La Mancha: Madrid
Romans: Madrid belonged under the administrative district of Complutem.
Moors: The Etymology of Madrid was derived from Moorish times, al-majreet: the water channel. Its significance, is linked, to how innovative Moorish irrigation systems worked in the high Meseta plateau areas.
Christians: Enroute to conquering Toledo, Castillean King Alfonso V1 acquired al-Majreet in 1085 AD.
In 1561 AD Madrid was chosen to become the capital of Spain under the rule of Felipe 11. This decision symbolized the union and centralization of the political power for the Spanish sovereignty. Marking, this historic event, order was given, to construct a monumental Spanish Royal Palace and Royal Pantheon a Hieronymite Monastery in El Escorial.
El Escorial was dedicated to celebrate Spanish Christianity. Immortalizing, the 1557 AD victory in the battle of St. Quentin, a war against Henry 11 of France, in which Spain came out victoriously.
Europe was fraught with Protestant reformation: Spain was the centre of Christianity. El Escorial was also intended as, a learning centre, aimed towards future counter-Reformation of Christianity.
During the 16th and 17th centuries Spain was a world-leading power. A great deal of wealth entered Spain, through Sevilla, and was spent, fighting the Reformation underfoot in Europe.
Madrid has remained capital of Spain to this day.
Why this Political Map of Spain is in Spanish
This map, was purposely created in Spanish, to facilitate "travelling in Spain"
Spanish road maps thus match the andalucia-andalusia.com Detailed Political Map of Spain.